○ Food and beverage which cause unwanted odor regardless of halitosis: Onions, garlic, alcohol, dairy products and cheese 

○ Non-bound halitosis

○ Halitosis due to dry mouth - (certain drugs inadequate in salivary secretion caused by dry mouth)

○ Halitosis related to poor oral hygiene (insufficient brushing of teeth, interdental brushing or flossing)

○ Periodontal disease: depending on the depth of the periodontal pocket and the kind of the bacteria

○ Oral malodor associated with dentures

○ Halitosis that occurs due to systemic diseases such as diabetes, liver and kidney disease.



○ Toothpastes containing antibacterial agents 

○ With the proper brushing techniques: the brush is angled 45 degrees to the tooth-gingiva junction and 2-3 teeth brushed in circular motion for 10 seconds.

○ Occlusal surfaces should be brushed.

○ Manual brushing is insufficient, the electric rotary brush should be used once a day.

○ Tongue brushing is an important factor in the elimination of halitosis.

○ The use of interdental brushes: the brushes should be used for the spaces in between the teeth, also for cleaning underneath the pontic of the dental bridges. 

Dental Floss Usage:

○Dental floss is pushed slightly in between two teeth in a way that it surrounds one of them. The floss should slide in the space between the teeth and gingiva and clean there  in a front-back moving fashion. The same motion should be done to the adjacent tooth in the same interdental area. Then the floss should come out. 


Mouthwash Use:

○ When done correctly, mouthwash usage twice a day can reduce halitosis.